Exalted to the right hand of God, Jesus has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit (Acts 2:33). Up to the time that Jesus rose from the dead, the Spirit had not been given, since Jesus had not yet been glorified (John 7:39).

The question is: Which was then the spirit that opereted in the Old Covenant (OT)? It could not be the Holy Spirit of God because at that time Jesus had not been risen.

"Christ made us able to be servants of a New Covenant; not of the letter, but of the Spirit: for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.” (2 Corinthians 3:6)


The Holy Spirit


Two different breaths

Jehovah (Yahweh) made man from the dust of the earth and breathed the breath of earthly life into Adam and he became physically alive (Genesis 2:7), whereas Jesus breathed the breath of the Holy Spirit on his disciples and they came to have the potential of spiritual life, manifested on the day of Pentecost (John 20:22).

We can distinguish two different breaths (2 spirits) in the Bible: the first is from the OT, which was breathed by Jehovah into the earthly man, who was made from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:7); the second is from NT and it was breathed by Jesus into His disciples and this was the Holy Spirit (John 20:21 and 22).

If Jesus and
Jehovah were the same, what is the use of giving another breath on the disciples, since they, as natural earthly men, had already received the breath of physical life from Jehovah? The breath from Jehovah didn’t avoid the man to perish, in spite of having the OT’s law (Galatians 2:16), but the breath from Jesus brought a new hope to everyone who trusts on him.

Two different spirits

When someone gets angry, feels jealousy or reveals selfishness, he manifests the characteristics of the physical affiliation with Jehovah and his spirit, since in material terms all humanity is made in his image and likeness from the dust of the earth.

Similarly, when someone does not retaliate to offensive behavior, does not blaspheme or complain about his fate, he is manifesting his affiliation with the Father and His Holy Spirit, mirroring the example of Jesus (the last Adam) who is from heaven and spiritual. That is the difference between the “living being” Adam and the “life-giving spirit” last Adam, Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15:45).

According to Galatians 5:22, the fruits of the Spirit are love, joy, peace patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness gentleness and self-control.

In the OT,
Jehovah's spirit overpowered people through aggression and wrath, as it did  with Saul, when he burned with anger and cut a pair of oxen into pieces (1 Samuel 11:6).
Likewise Samson, after some of these “incorporations”, first kill a lion and then an army of 1000 Philistines with the simple bone of an ass (Judges 14:6-20; 15:14-15; 1 Samuel 11:6-7).

What kind of spirit is that which operated in the OT? Can we see the fruits of the Holy Spirit in the spirit incorporated in Samson during the extermination of the Philistines?

An old creation in Genesis and a new creation in Pentecost

Genesis 1:2 says that in the beginning the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. This situation typifies the condition of the natural not-reconciled man.

He is “formless and empty” because his mind is controlled by outside forces from mass media and evil spirits. As Colossians 2:13 says, that creature is spiritually dead in his sins and in the spiritual uncircumcision of his sinful nature. There is no use for the Spirit of God hovering “over” the waters without operating “inside” them.

In the Pentecost’s day, the Holy Spirit that had been promised by Jesus filled in the disciples and they acquired new supernatural life (Acts 2:1 to 13). From a chicken-hearted group of religious Jews (John 20:19), they became a fearless group of missionaries and ambassadors of God’s kingdom (Acts 6:41 and 42).

Jesus said to Nicodemus that he should be born again (John 3:7). This new birth occurs when the Spirit that is outside comes inside the creature.

The Holy Spirit of the Father had never operated before Jesus’ coming for He said at the end of his ministry: Unless I go way, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you (John 16:7).

Therefore, if in the old creation of OT the Spirit was just “hovering over the waters”, in the NT anyone who is in Christ is a new creation through the Holy Spirit; the old has gone, the new has come (2 Corinthians 5:16).

The Spirit and the temptation in the desert

Jesus full of the Holy Spirit returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit (holy?) to the desert where for forty days he was tempted by the devil (Luke 4:4).

Two spirits were mentioned here: the first (of which Jesus was full) was the Holy Spirit and the second was simply “a spirit”, which we don’t know from it came. If the second spirit was “holy”, why only the first is called “Holy”?

In James 1:13 we read: “When tempted no-one should say: God is tempting me. For God cannot be tempted by evil nor does he tempt anyone”. If the true God doesn’t tempt anyone, I ask: Was the second spirit a good or evil spirit?

In the OT Jehovah led the people of Israel to the desert for forty years (number forty usually means temptation) to humble the people and to test them in a quite similar situation.

The great difference is that when tempted in the desert Jesus was victorious whereas many of the people of Israel were put into death when tempted by Jehovah in the desert.

Evil spirits

In the Old Testament there are the following texts:

. Judges 9:23 – God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the citizens of Shechem.
. 1 Samuel 16:14 – An evil spirit from Jehovah tormented Saul... Whenever David played his harp the evil spirit left him and Saul felt better (see too 1 Samuel 18:10 and 19:9).
. 1 Kings 22:23 – Jehovah has put a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours. Jehovah has decreed disaster for you (see too 2 Chronicles 18:22).
. Isaiah 19:14 – Jehovah has poured into them a spirit of dizziness; they make Egypt stagger in all that she does as a drunkard staggers around in his vomit.

What kind of god is this who operated in the OT and sent evil spirits to torment men?

The true God Father does not send evil spirits because He has only one, the Holy Spirit, the Counselor, whose work is:

- to convict the world of guilt (John 16:7);
- to guide men into all truth (John 16:3);
- to teach men all things concerned to the spiritual Kingdom of God and remind them of everything Jesus have said (John 14:26).

Jesus had never sent evil spirits to anyone. On the contrary, He drove out many evil spirits from the tormented people (Mark 1:34; Matthew 8:16 and 9:33; Luke 13:32).

"Urim and Thummim"

"Urim and Thummim" is mentioned in Exodus 28:30 to 35 on the description of high priest's breastpiece.

This breastpiece was linked to the ephod (verse 28). 
The real meaning of "Urim and Thummim" is not sure yet.

However, biblical studiers interpreted it as stones that would bright when   indicated approval, just as the luminous code of a semaphore.

This hypothesis is based on the meaning of the Hebraic
expression "
Thummim", that means "lights." 


Before the kings' period, Israel had a theocratic government. The high priest entered in the shrine, asking for the direction of Jehovah that answered through "Urim and Thummim" (Numbers 27:21).

At the time of the OT they still didn’t have the Holy Spirit to lead them to all truth, as we have nowadays (John 16:13).
Thus, all difficult questions and decisions that involved judgments such as “yes” or “no”, were taken by the priests for consultation through "Urim and Thummim" (Leviticus 8:1 to 9). 

After the kingdom was established, the method of "Urim and Thummim" had been finished because Jehovah was rejected as king and sovereign in Israel. For this reason, he stopped manifesting his will through that way. 

The silence of Jehovah brought despair to Saul, first king of Israel, who was accustomed with those trite orientations. The absence of the prognostics and divinations took him to draw on a witch, a medium woman from Endor (I Samuel 28:6 and 7). 

Similar situation occurs when a Christian, because of his insanity, thinks that God occasionally "silenced" to him, drawing on false "prophets" that take him to dangerous mistakes.  When a person looks for a "prophet" in a “consultation”, he is denying the possibility of Holy Spirit to speak directly to him in a supernatural and personal way. This can also be through dreams or meditation in the Scriptures.

If God needs to speak with somebody about any matter He sends the prophet with the message directly to the person that must hear it. Therefore, the right way is when the prophet comes to the person and not when the person comes to the prophet. 

Septuaginta (Greek version of the Bible) translates "Urim and Thummim" respectively for "Delos" (Word) and "Aletéia" (Holy Spirit). 
. "Urim" means "lights" and Jesus is the true light that shines in the darkness (John 1:5 and 9).
. "
Thummim" means "perfections", so it would be conveniently related with the Holy Spirit. After all, where would we find perfection except for in the Holy Spirits virtues? (Ef.5:9). 

Jews were led by Jehovah’s “semaphore” of Urim and Thummim but those who believe in Jesus are led by His Holy Spirit, so they don’t need draw on diviners and prophets because the spiritual man makes judgments about all things, but he himself is not subject to any man’s judgment (1 Corinthians 1:15).


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